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This series is an invaluable reference work for anyone interested in genealogical research or in studying family history. William Filby, Former director, Maryland Historical Society Fellow of the Society of Genealogists, London Fellow of the National Genealogical Society vii This page intentionally left blank Introduction Italians to America provides both the genealogist and the historian with an extensive data base of Italian immigrants who came to the United States between 18.This data base derives from the original ship manifest schedules, currently housed at the Temple-Balch Institute's Center for Immigration Research in Philadelphia.The manifests record deaths during the voyage, although information on mortality is not reproduced in these volumes. Although the manifests provide significant information about nineteenth-century immigration, we know relatively little about the actual IX compilation of these lists. Historical Background and Causes of Italian Migration in the Nineteenth Century For over a century, Italy has been one of the most important countries in the world for emigration.The lists herein also indicate the name of the ship, the port of embarkation, and the date of arrival in the U. Available evidence suggests that the lists were compiled first by shipping agents at the port of embarkation and initially contained the names of all prepaid passengers; the names of additional passengers were added on board, after which clerks copied the lists before depositing them with U. Over 25 million Italians have emigrated between 18.
Migration was the most visible manifestation of a disequilibrium caused by a stagnant economy and increasing population pressure.In the years between 18, Italy underwent a "demographic explosion" and completed the first phase of a demographic transition due to a more rapid fall in death rates than in birth rates and to a rapid increase in the rate of growth of the population, which rose from 26.8 million to 34.6 million between 18, or by about 8 million persons.The increase in population growth rates led to massive emigration from the south, or Mezzogiorno, where the process of demographic transition was delayed.2 Birth rates and death rates fell more slowly in the south than in the north, so that the Mezzogiorno had a higher natural rate of growth and underwent greater demographic pressure.The passenger lists make possible a detailed reconstruction of the movement of population from the major sender countries, in the present case Italy, by including information on the age, sex, occupation, and nationality of each passenger and residence and putative destination.Analysis of this information enables the researcher to identify U. citizens returning to their country of origin, persons transitting the United States, and immigrants.